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Refrigerated Transportation 2nd Ed.

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Refrigerated Transportation 2nd Ed.

Covers the transportation of perishable goods by sea. 

Now in its second edition this book provides a detailed description of the transportation of perishable goods world-wide.

Reviewing every aspect of the industry, including preservation, transportation, development, technology, terminal and transport economics and international standards, it uses an example commodity study of bananas to explain many of the points.

 

PART 1 INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 THE PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION

 

1.2 THE PRACTICE OF REFRIGERATION

 

1.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION

 

1.4 THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERATION TO FOODSTUFFS

 

PART 2 THE HISTORY OF REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT

 

2.1 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS

 

2.2 LATER DEVELOPMENTS

 

2.3 THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

 

2.4 REFRIGERATED RAIL TRANSPORT

 

PART 3 THE PRESERVATION OF PERISHABLE FOODSTUFF

 

3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

3.2 DETERIORATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

 

3.3 HANDLING TECHNIQUES

 

3.4 PRESERVATION OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

 

3.5 THE CASE OF THE LESSER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

 

PART 4 THE TRANSPORT OF PERISHABLE FOODSTUFF

 

4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

4.2 MODIFIED AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES

 

4.3 PRODUCT STOWAGE

 

4.4 PALLETIZATION

 

4.5 ROAD TRANSPORT OF PERISHABLES

 

4.6 AIR TRANSPORT

 

PART 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

 

5.1 WHAT IS A REFRIGERATED CONTAINER?

 

5.2 TECHNICAL FACTORS

 

5.3 THE REFRIGERATED TANK CONTAINER

 

PART 6 TECHNOLOGY OF THE REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

 

6.1 AIR DELIVERY SYSTEMS

 

6.2 REFRIGERATED MACHINERY

 

6.3 INTEGRAL AND PORTHOLE TYPES

 

6.4 TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND DATA LOGGING

 

6.5 REMOTE MONITORING

 

6.6 ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

 

6.7 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

PART 7 CONTAINER TERMINAL AND TRANSPORT LOGISTICS

 

7.1 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR REEFERS IN EXISTING (SMALL) PORTS

 

7.2 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR REEFERS AT TRANSFER POINTS

 

7.3 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT/INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORTING BY TRUCK AND / OR TRAIN

 

7.4 SIZES, TYPES AND LOGISTICAL PARAMETERS GOVERNING DEDICATED REEFER CONTAINER VESSELS

 

PART 8 SOME ECONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS

 

8.1 TRANSITION FROM BULK TO CONTAINER REEFER

 

8.2 CONDITIONS FOR OPERATING REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS ON CONVENTIONAL VESSELS IN COASTAL AND INTER-ISLAND TRADES

 

8.3 DEAD-HEADING EMPTY REEFERS VERSUS THEIR USE FOR NON-REFRIGERATED CARGOES

 

8.4 OPERATING COSTS

 

8.5 PURCHASE VERSUS LEASING – THE ROLE OF THE LEASING COMPANY

 

PART 9 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

 

9.1 INTRODUCTION

 

9.2 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION

 

9.3 INSPECTING AND TESTING BODIES

 

9.4 ATP/ECE

 

9.5 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

 

9.6 OTHER RULES AND BODIES

 

9.7 THE IMO AND CSC

 

9.8 LABELLING

 

9.9 THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

 

PART 10 BANANAS – A COMMODITY STUDY

 

10.1 INTRODUCTION

 

10.2 THE TRADE IN BANANAS

 

10.3 REGIONAL TRADE SUMMARIES

 

10.4 PARTICIPATION

 

10.5 INFRASTRUCTURE

 

10.6 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

 

10.7 A CASE STUDY

 

10.8 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS AND PROSPECTS

 

10.9 BANANAS – TEN YEARS ON

 

PART 11 ENVIRONMENTAL AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

 

11.1 GENERAL

 

11.2 MODIFIED AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES

 

11.3 GENETIC ENGINEERING

 

11.4 THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

 

11.5 INTERNATIONAL COMPLIANCE

 

11.6 LEGISLATION IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

 

11.7 POSTSCRIPT – THERES ALWAYS TOMORROW

 

APPENDICES

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS

 

MATCH REEFER COMMODITIES

 

REEFER TRADE TO 2005

 

REEFER TRADE TO COMMODITIES

 

ABBREVIATIONS

 

SUMMARIES

 

INDEX

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

FIG 1.1 THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE

 

FIG 1.2 AN EARLY COLD AIR MACHINE

 

FIG 1.3 THE BELL-COLEMAN MACHINE

 

FIG 1.4 THE SINGLE SCREW COMPRESSOR (COURTESY OF APV HALL PRODUCTS LTD)

 

FIG 2.1 MEAT BEING LANDED IN LONDON IN 1881 (COURTESY OF THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS)

 

FIG 2.2 THE ILL-FATED DUNEDIN

 

FIG 2.3 AN ISOTHERMIC CONTAINER (INTERIOR VIEW) (COURTESY OF W.H. DAVIS LTD)

 

FIG 2.4 AN INTEGRAL REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

 

FIG 2.5 A PRESS ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE 1960’s (COURTESY OF SEA CONTAINERS LTD)

 

FIG 2.6 AN INFREGO REFRIGERATED RAIL WAGON BETWEEN ITALY AND SWITZERLAND

 

FIG 2.7 BANANAS IN TRANSIT

 

FIG 2.8 A REEFER STARTS ITS JOURNEY

 

FIG 4.1 TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY HOT GAS INJECTION

 

FIG 4.2 TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY SUCTION THROTTLING

 

FIG 4.3 COMPATIBILTY OF CARGOES

 

FIG 4.4 STOWAGE PATTERN

 

FIG 4.5 TOP AIRFLOW PATTERN FOR FROZEN PRODUCTS

 

FIG 4.6 TOP AIRFLOW PATTERN FOR CHILLED PRODUCTS

 

FIG 4.7 STOWAGE PATTERN FOR CHILLED PRODUCTS

 

FIG 4.8 BLOCK STOW PATTERN WITH BOTTOM AIR DELIVERY

 

FIG 4.9 STOWAGE PATTERN FOR PALLETIZED LOADS – BOTTOM AIR DELIVERY

 

(COURTESY OF AMERICAN PRESIDENTS COMPANIES FOR FIGS 4.4 TO 4.9)

 

FIG 4.10 CUTAWAY VIEW OF AN INTEGRAL REFRIGERATED CONTAINER

 

FIG 4.11 VEHICLE LOADING CHECK LIST

 

FIG 4.12 LOADING A REEFER TO OPTIMIZE QUALITY

 

FIG 5.1 A SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK LOADED WITH A CONSIGNMENT OF BELGIAN LAGER BEER

 

FOR SHIPMENT TO AUSTRALIA

 

FIG 5.2 DIAGRAMMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK

 

FIG 5.3 SEA CONTAINERS REEFER TANK SYSTEM

 

FIG 5.4 A CPV TANK REFRIGERATED BY A THERMO KING UNIT

 

FIG 5.5 HOT DUSTY CONDITIONS, BUT COOL UNBLEMISHED PRODUCT

 

FIG 6.1 A CONAIR SHIPSIDE COOLING AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM

 

FIG 6.2 THERMOGUARD MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER

 

FIG 6.3 A SEA CONTAINERS POWER PACK

 

FIG 6.4 THE SEA CONTAINERS POWER PACK – GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN

 

FIG 6.5 A CARRIER TRANSICOLD CLIP-ON UNIT BEING MOUNTED

 

FIG 6.6 A CARRIER TRANSICOLD CLIP-ON UNIT ATTACHED TO A REEFER

 

FIG 6.7 A TATE UNDERSLUG DIESEL GENSET ATTACHED TO A CHASSIS

 

FIG 7.1 DIAGRAM OF TERMINAL REFRIGERATION INSTALLATION (COURTESY OF ASSOCIATED CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION LTD)

 

FIG 7.2 REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS CONNECTED TO A TERMINAL INSTALLATION AT TILBURY DOCKS

 

(COURTESY OF LONDON MUSEUM OF DOCKLAND)

 

FIG 7.3 TRANSHIPMENT OF A VERY SMART REEFER

 

FIG 8.1 WASHING AND REMOVING THE PLASTIC PROTECTION BAGS FROM BANANAS

 

FIG 9.1 A TYPICAL ENERGY LABEL

 

FIG 10.1 A SEA CONTAINERS SHIFTER RUBBER WHEELED GANTRY CRANE

 

FIG 10.2 AN OVERHEAD PULLEY SYSTEM IS THE BEST WAY OF MOVING BANANA CROPS AND WORKERS!

 

FIG 10.3 SWIFT TRANSPORTATION ENSURES PRODUCE ARRIVES IN THE BEST POSSIBLE CONDITIONS

 

FIG 10.4 TRANSHIPMENT THROUGH SINGAPORE

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLE 1.1 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLE

 

TABLE 3.1 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF FRUIT

 

TABLE 3.2 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF VEGETABLES

 

TABLE 3.3 TEMPERATURES FOR THE TRANSPORT OF MEAT, FISH AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

 

TABLE 3.4 EXPORTING AND IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF BANANAS

 

TABLE 3.5 EXPORTING AND IMPORTING COUNTRIES OF BANANAS 10 YEARS ON-FOR COMPARISON

 

TABLE 4.1 RESPIRATION RATES FOR CERTAIN COMMODITIES

 

TABLE 4.2 ETHYLENE PRODUCTION RATES OF CERTAIN COMMODITIES

 

TABLE 4.3 AVERAGE HALF COOLING TIMES OF PALLETIZED CARTONS

 

TABLE 5.1 ANALYSIS OF 20/40ft INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY COUNTRY AND OWNERSHIP

 

TABLE 5.2 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY CLADDING AND REGION

 

TABLE 5.3 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY AGE AND REGION

 

TABLE 5.4 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY AGE AND CLADDING

 

TABLE 5.5 ANALYSIS OF INTEGRAL REEFER AND INSULATED CONTAINER FLEET BY LENGTH AND CLADDING

 

TABLE 5.6 WORLD FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH

 

TABLE 5.7 CHANGES IN WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH/HEIGHT FOR PERIOD 1996-97

 

TABLE 5.8 CHANGES IN WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION FOR PERIOD 1996-97

 

TABLE 5.9 WORLD TEU FLEET OF INTEGRAL REEFER/INSULATED CONTAINERS BY LENGTH/HEIGHT AND OWNER

 

TABLE 6.1 PLUG TYPES AND THEIR MOST COMMON LOCATIONS

 

TABLE 7.1 RELATIVE INITIAL COST OF SOME TYPES OF HANDLING EQUIPMENT

 

TABLE 7.2 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTAINER HANDLING EQUIPMENT

 

TABLE 8.1 REEFER FLEETS BY FLAG AND YEAR OF BUILD

 

TABLE 8.2 CONTAINERSHIPS OF 100 TEU REEFER SLOTS OR OVER

 

TABLE 8.3 ESTIMATED BREAKDOWN OF CIF COSTS IN SELECTED BANANA TRADES, 1981

 

TABLE 8.4 REEFER CONTAINER CAPACITY – AN ORDER AT END 1996

 

TABLE 8.5 CONTAINER FLEET REFRIGERATION – CONTAINER CAPACITY BY SIZE RANGE 1993 & 1996 – (FULLY AND SEMI-CELLULAR VESSELS/’000 TEU)

 

TABLE 8.6 THE CONVENTIONAL REEFER FLEET- CAPACITY, TEU AND NUMBER OF VESSELS, END 1996

 

TABLE 8.7 THE CONVENTIONAL REEFER FLEET CAPACITY TEU AND VESSEL NUMBER BY SIZE AND AGE STRUCTURE, END 1996

 

TABLE 9.1 LATEST PHASE-OUT SCHEDULE AGREED IN 9TH MEETING OF PARTIES, MONTREAL 15-17 SEPTEMBER 1997

 

TABLE 10.1 THE BANANAS CONTRIBUTION TO DAILY MINERAL AND VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS

 

TABLE 10.2 BANANAS COMPARED WITH OTHER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

 

TABLE 10.3 COMPARISON OF WORLD IMPORTS AND BANANA PRICES

 

TABLE 10.4 TRENDS IN YIELD PER HECTARE

 

TABLE 10.5 BANANA IMPORTS INTO EASTERN EUROPE

 

TABLE 10.6 BANANA WORLD PRODUCTION 1981-94

 

TABLE 10.7 BANANAS: COMPARISON OF PRIMARY PROCEDURES AND EXPORTERS 1981-94

TABLE 11.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLORINE-FREE ALTERNATIVES