Marine Fuels and Emissions

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SKU 9781856095976
Publisher Witherby Seamanship International
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This book examines the link between the fuels ships use and the emissions they produce. It discusses efficient energy management and technological solutions available to reduce fuel emissions.

This book relates to fuel use in the marine sector in the age of climate change. It is a valuable source of detailed information on:

  • fuel standards and fuel types (eg fossil fuels, reduced sulphur fuels, and alternative fuels such as LNG, biofuels, hydrogen, electricity, wind and solar power)

  • pollution

  • engine and abatement technology

  • safety measures

  • regions of emission control

  • emissions regulations.

An important feature of the book is the inclusion of data sheets for a selection of abatement technology systems for SOx and NOx, and for engines with LNG capability.




List of Figures


CHAPTER ONE – Introduction

1 Introduction

1.1 Non-GHG Emissions

1.1.1 Population Health

1.2 Reducing Emissions

1.2.1 Changing the Fuel

1.2.2 Using Less Fuel

1.2.3 Abatement Technologies

1.3 The Future



CHAPTER TWO – Marine Fuels

2 Marine Fuels

2.1 Blending

2.2 Fuel Standards and Quality

2.2.1 Standards

2.2.2 Technical Specifications and Fuel Sulphur Content

2.2.3 Sulphur

2.2.4 Off-Specification Fuel

2.3 Cutting Emissions

2.3.1 Refiner’s Point of View

2.3.2 Low Sulphur Fuels

2.3.3 Fuel Switching

2.3.4 Safety and Potential Problems



CHAPTER THREE – Natural Gas as a Fuel

3 Natural Gas as a Fuel

3.1 LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)

3.1.1 Properties of LNG

3.2 Training and Safety

3.3 Class Societies

3.4 Bunkering

3.4.1 Ports/Regions Developing LNG Capabilities

3.5 Rules and Regulations

3.6 Engine Technology

3.6.1 Dual Fuel Engine Technology

3.6.2 Potential Technical/Design Problems

3.7 Ship Designs and Orders

3.8 The Economics of LNG as a Marine Propulsion Fuel



CHAPTER FOUR – Non-Fossil Marine Fuels and Power Sources

4 Non-Fossil Marine Fuels and Power Sources

4.1 Biofuels

4.2.3 Rotors

4.2.4 Rigid Sails

4.2.5 Rigid Sail and Solar Power in Combination

4.3 Solar Power

4.3.1 Marine Use

4.4 Fuel Cells

4.5 Battery Power

4.6 Shore Power

4.6.1 Emissions

4.6.2 Costs and Problems

4.6.3 Regional Development of Onshore Power

4.6.4 Ships Using Cold Ironing

4.6.5 Legislation

4.7 Nuclear Power



CHAPTER FIVE – Efficient Energy Management

5 Efficient Energy Management

5.1 Ship Operation

5.1.1 Speed

5.1.2 Propeller and Rudder Maintenance

5.2 Ship Design

5.2.1 Fuel Efficient Designs

5.3 The Effect of Legislation

5.3.1 Encouraging Green Investment

5.3.2 Environmental Ship Index (ESI)



CHAPTER SIX – Emissions and Pollutants

6 Emissions and Pollutants

6.1 Greenhouse Gases (GHG)

6.1.1 Sources and Sinks of GHGs

6.1.2 Shipping and GHGs

6.2 The Different Pollutants

6.2.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

6.2.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

6.2.3 Sulphur Oxides (SOx)

6.2.4 Particulate Matter (PM)



CHAPTER SEVEN – Regions of Emission Control

7 Regions of Emission Control

7.1 Designation of an ECA

7.2 Emission Control Areas

7.2.1 The Two European ECAs: The Baltic Sea SOx-ECA and the North Sea and

English Channel SOx-ECA

7.2.2 The North American SOx/NOx-ECA

7.2.3 United States Caribbean Sea SOx/NOx-ECA

7.2.4 California Regulated Waters Sulphur in Fuel Standards

7.2.5 The European Union Sulphur Directive at Port


CHAPTER EIGHT – Emissions Regulations and Compliance

8 Emissions Regulations and Compliance

8.1 Carbon Dioxide Emission Regulations

8.1.1 IMO CO2 Legislation

8.1.2 European Union Legislation

8.1.3 Compliance and Enforcement

8.1.4 Incentives for Reducing CO2 Emissions

8.2 Nitrogen Oxide Emission Regulations

8.2.1 IMO Mandatory Global and Regional NOx Legislation

8.2.2 The CARB (California Air Resources Board) At-Berth (OGV) Emissions Regulation

8.2.3 Incentives for Reducing NOx Emissions

8.2.4 Inland Waterway Legislation

8.3 Sulphur Dioxide Emission Regulations

8.3.1 IMO SOx Regulations

8.3.2 California SOx Legislation

8.3.3 The European Union (EU) Sulphur Directive at Port

8.3.4 Legislation for SOx-Reducing Systems

8.4 Particulate Matter Emission Regulations

8.4.1 Marine Particulate Matter Standards

8.4.2 Inland Waterway Legislation



CHAPTER NINE – Abatement Technologies and Engines

9 Abatement Technologies and Engines

9.1 Abatement Technologies

9.2 EGTS for SOx Emissions

9.2.1 Open Loop or Seawater Scrubbing

9.2.2 Closed Loop or Fresh Water Scrubbing

9.2.3 Hybrid Scrubbing

9.2.4 Dry Scrubbing

9.3 EGTS for NOx Emissions

9.3.1 SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction)

9.3.2 EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation)

9.4 LNG Engines and Related Technologies

9.4.1 Spark-Ignited Engines

9.4.2 Dual Fuel Engines

9.4.3 Single Fuel Gas Engines

9.5 Exhaust Monitoring for Emissions Compliance



CHAPTER TEN – Data Sheets for a Selection of Abatement Technology Systems

10 Data Sheets for a Selection of Abatement Technology Systems

10.1 SOx Abatement Systems

10.1.1 Alfa Laval PureSOx

10.1.2 BELCO Marine Scrubber

10.1.3 Clean Marine Hybrid Scrubber

10.1.4 DryEGCS Scrubber

10.1.5 Ecospec CSNOx

10.1.6 Envitech Marine Ship-based and Land-based SO2 Scrubber Systems

10.1.7 GTM R15 Scrubber

10.1.8 MES EcoSilencer Scrubber

10.1.9 Wärtsilä Closed Loop Exhaust Gas Scrubber

10.1.10 Wärtsilä Open Loop Exhaust Gas Scrubber

10.2 NOx Abatement Systems

10.2.1 BLUNOX SCR System

10.2.2 DEC Marine SCR System

10.2.3 MAN Diesel & Turbo Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System

10.2.4 Wärtsilä NOx Reducer System

10.2.5 Wilhelmsen NOx Care Marine

10.3 Engines with LNG Capability

10.3.1 Caterpillar M 46 DF Medium Speed Dual Fuel Engine

10.3.2 MAN B&W 2-Stroke Dual Fuel ME-GI Engine

10.3.3 MAN Diesel & Turbo 4-Stroke Dual Fuel Engines

10.3.4 Mitsubishi Gas Engines

10.3.5 Rolls-Royce Bergen B-series and C-series Lean-Burn 4-Stroke Gas Engines

10.3.6 Wärtsilä Dual Fuel Engines


It is obvious to anyone with even a passing interest in the shipping industry that it is now well and truly in the “environmental crosshairs”. Its environmental performance is being scrutinised and legislated for as never before. Shipping’s environmental performance with respect to emissions to air is perhaps the issue receiving the most regulatory and public attention.

Sulphur dioxide (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have all been the subject of international (IMO) and, in some parts of the world, local regulation. Carbon dioxide has received attention indirectly in the regulations concerning vessel fuel efficiency. It is doubtful whether anyone would bet against exhaust gas black carbon and particulates being the subject of some form of regulation in the near future.

The common thread joining all these issues is ship’s fuel, both in terms of quality and quantity. Changing either, or both, of these factors has a marked effect on the emissions to air from a ship.

It is at this point that life for the ship manager or operator becomes difficult. Not only do the regulations need to be complied with, but they need to be complied with in such a way that the vessel remains competitive. In shipping, as in other things in life, there is more than one way to “skin a cat”. The path to compliance, with an eye to the future, is a maze rather than a freeway and very careful consideration must be given to each and every vessel. Even sister vessels have differing trading patterns and therefore each solution will be more or less bespoke.

With the rise of the emission to air scrutiny and legislation, there has naturally been a corresponding rise in the number of organisations coming forwards with technological and operational solutions to the maze. All very well, but which one to pick?

In Marine Fuels & Emissions, the authors have provided essential and comprehensive information about the myriad of factors that must be considered before often expensive decisions concerning compliance and beyond are made. The book may be justifiably considered as a timely and welcome guide out of the emissions maze.


Title: Marine Fuels and Emissions
Number of Pages: 151
Product Code: WS1398K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-597-6 (9781856095976), ISBN 10: 1-85609-597-5 (1856095975)
Published Date: September 2013
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 275 mm
Book Width: 215 mm
Book Spine: 10 mm
Weight: 0.60 kg

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