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Hydrates in LPG Cargoes

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Hydrates in LPG Cargoes

This title shows how hydrates are caused in LPG cargoes and the methods by which they are removed.  

This book is a technical review of the processes and procedures commonly practiced in production, storage and transportation of LPG. It shows how these can lead to water entering or remaining in the cargo, leading to hydrate formation. Recommendations aimed at the elimination of hydration formation are made in this useful document.

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION OF WATER INTO LPG

1.1 AT PRODUCTION PLANTS

1.2 DURING STORAGE

1.3 ON BOARD SHIP

1.3.1 INERTING/VENTILATION

1.3.2 MOISTURE IN RUST ON STEEL SURFACES

1.4 HYDROSTATIC TESTING

SECTION 2 - THE FORMATION OF HYDRATES

2.1 GENERAL

2.2 PROPANE HYDRATES

2.3 BUTANE HYDRATES

2.4 PROCESSES IN WHICH HYDRATE FORMATION CAN BE EXPECTED

2.5 MODIFICATION OF HYDRATE FORMATION BY METHANOL ADDITION

2.6 SOLUBILITY OF WATER IN LPG LIQUIDS AND THEIR VAPOURS

SECTION 3 - AVOIDANCE OF ICE OR HYDRATE FORMATION

3.1 GENERAL

3.2 REDUCTION IN WATER DEWPOINT ON SHIPS

3.3 SOLID DESICCANTS

3.4 HYDRATE FORMATION TEMPERATURE DEPRESSANTS

3.4.1 COMMISSIONING Procedures

3.4.2 RELIQUEFACTION PLANTS

3.4.3 INJECTION QUANTITIES

3.4.4 METHANOL CONTAMINATION OF LPG

3.5 HYDRATE CONTROL WITHOUT METHANOL INJECTION

3.5.1 DEFREEZING OF LPG CONDENSERS

3.5.2 PROMOTION AND REMOVAL OF HYDRATES

SECTION 4 - SHIPBAORD TEST METHODS

4.1 SAMPLING METHODS

4.2 WATER CONTENT

4.2.1 DEWPOINT METERS

4.2.2 VALVE FREEZE TEST METHOD

4.3 METHANOL DETECTION

SECTION 5 - HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH ICE/HYDRATES

5.1 RELIQUEFACTION UNITS AND CARGO PIPING SYSTEMS

5.2 CARGO PUMPS

SECTION 6 - SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 FULLY PRESSURISED LPG

6.2 FULLY AND SEMI-REFRIGERATED SHORE SYSTEMS

6.3 FORMATION OF HYDRATES ON SHIPS

6.4 SHIPBOARD COUNTER MEASURES

6.5 SHIPBOARD TEST METHODS

6.6 VALIDATION OF DATA ASSUMPTIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1 EXPLANATION OF THE PROPANE-WATER SYSTEM

1 WHY LPG BOIL-OFF VAPOUR CONTAINS MORE WATER THAN LIQUID

2 THE VAPOUR, LIQUID AND SOLID PHASES OF THE PROPANE-WATER SYSTEM DURING RELIQUEFACTION

2i DIRECT CASCADE RELIQUEFACTION

2ii DIRECT TWO STAGE RELIQUEFACTION

3 FORMATION OF HYDRATES DURING VAPORISATION OF PROPANE LIQUID CONTAMINATED WITH WATER

4 ETHANE, ISO-AND N-BUTANE

APPENDIX 2 LPG FREEZE VALVE

APPENDIX 3 ESTIMATION OF METHANOL TO ADD TO PREVENT ICE/HYDRATE FORMATION

A. METHANOL TO ADD TO A TANK CONTAINING PROPANE OR N-BUTANE SATURATED WITH WATER AT 38C TO PREVENT ICE/HYDRATE FORMATION ON COOLING DOWN TANK CONTENTS FROM SVP AT 38c TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

B. METHANOL TO ADD TO THE RELIQUEFACTION CONDENSER IN PROPANE AND N-BUTANE DUTY TO PREVENT HYDRATE FORMATION IN THE CONDENSER OR IN THE CONDENSATE RETURN