Crude Oil Tanker Basics: The Theory and Practice of Crude Oil Cargo Operations

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SKU 9781905331635
Publisher Witherby Seamanship International
ISBN 9781905331635
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This book covers the basics of crude oil tanker operations, including cargo transfer, venting, purging, pump theory, and inert gas and crude oil washing systems.

What precious time is spent on cargo duties is often used in learning how to use the automated cargo control systems and therefore not covering the basics of operating crude oil tankers (whether they be Suezmax, VLCC or ULCCs) and their related activities such as venting, purging, understanding the operation of cargo pumps and the fundamentals of Inert Gas and Crude Oil Washing Systems to name but a few items.

All of these operations, and more, are explained in this new 192 page book which is supported with photographs taken onboard a new build VLCC.


  1. 1 Crude Oil Extraction


    2 Crude Oil Chemistry

    2.1 Classification of Crude Oil

    2.2 Properties of Crude Oil

    2.2.1 Density

    2.2.2 Vapour Pressure

    2.2.3 Flash Point

    2.2.4 Pour Point

    2.2.5 Wax Content

    2.2.6 Cloud Point

    2.2.7 Viscosity

    2.2.8 Basic Sediments and Water (BS&W)

    2.2.9 Sulphur Content

    2.2.10 Benzene Content


    Measurement of Cargo Quantity

    3.1 Level Measurement (Tank Gauging)

    3.2 Temperature Measurement

    3.3 Detecting Water


    4 Calculating Cargo Quantity

    4.1 Calculating the Cargo Requirement

    4.2 Calculating the Weight of Cargo

    4.3 Calculating the Volume of Cargo

    4.4 Cargo Distribution

    4.5 Load Port Calculations

    4.6 Calculation of Cargo Loaded and Discharged

    4.7 Calculating Residual Quantities

    4.8 Comparing Onboard Quantities with Bill of Lading (B/L) Figures

    4.8.1 Gross and Net Quantities

    4.8.2 Vessel Inspection Factor (VEF)


    5 Loading Rates and Venting

    5.1 Maximum Loading Rate

    5.2 Minimum Loading Rate

    5.3 Topping off Loading Rate

    5.4 Cargo Tank Vetting During Loading

    5.4.1 Venting Requirements

    5.4.2 Venting Using a Mast Riser

    5.4.3 Venting Using Hi-Velocity Vents

    5.4.4 Loading Using Vapour Recovery

    5.4.5 Essential Components of a VECS

    5.4.6 Loading Rates under a VECS

    5.4.7 Preparations Prior to Arrival at a Loading Port where a VECS is to be used.


    6 Preparing for Cargo Transfer

    6.1 Planning

    6.1.1 The Planning Process

    6.1.2 Updating the Plan

    6.2 Testing and Checking Equipment


    7 The Loading Operation

    7.1 Initial Loading Phase

    7.2 Full Rate Phase

    7.3 Topping off and changing Over Tanks

    7.4 Completing Phase


    8 Pumping and Pump Theory

    8.1 Pressure and Head

    8.1.1 Units of Pressure

    8.2 Pump Suction Conditions

    8.3 Pump Discharge Conditions

    8.4 Construction and Principles of Operation of Centrifugal Pumps

    8.4.1 Pump Affinity Laws

    8.5 Pump Suction Conditions

    8.6 Discharge Conditions

    8.6.1 Using HQ Curves and System Curves

    8.6.2 Changing Pump Speed

    8.6.3 Total Discharge Head and Volumetric Flow Rate with Two Pumps Operating in Parallel

    8.6.4 High Shore Resistance Conditions

    8.6.5 Low Shore Resistance Conditions

    8.6.6 Practical Considerations When Operating Centrifugal Pumps

    8.7 Water Hammer

    8.8 Stripping Systems

    8.8.1 Stripping Pumps

    8.8.2 Eductors

    8.8.3 Automatic Cargo Pump Stripping System (Vac Strip)


    9 Cargo Discharge Operations

    9.1 Commencement of Discharge

    9.2 Discharging at Full Rate

    9.3 Stripping

    9.4 Stripping Line Contents


    10 Inert Gas

    10.1 Chemistry of Inert Flue Gas

    10.2 Production and Processing of Inert Flue Gas

    10.3 Preparing the IG System

    10.4 Primary Inerting

    10.5 Purging

    10.6 Monitoring Gas Concentrations

    10.7 Operation of the IG System during Cargo Discharge

    10.8 Cold Weather Precautions when Using the IG System


    11 Crude Oil Washing (COW)

    11.1 The Chemistry of COW

    11.2 Hazards of COW

    11.2.1 Ignition as a Result of Electrostatic Generation

    11.2.2 Oil Spillage as a Result of Leakage from a COW Piping System or Tank Cleaning Machine

    11.3 COW Methodology

    11.3.1 COW Tanks with Homogeneous Cargo

    11.3.2 COW Tanks with Different Grades of Crude Oil

    11.3.3 Dealing with Residual ROB after COW

    11.4 Programming COW Machines

    11.4.1 Azimuth Rotational Speed (rpm)

    11.4.2 Pitch Angle (Degrees per Rotation)

    11.4.3 Vertical Wash Angle (Degrees)


    12 Ballasting, Deballasting and Crude Oil Content Discharge Control

    12.1 Ballast Tank Arrangements

    12.2 Piping and Pumps

    12.3 Venting Arrangement

    12.4 Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control Equipment (ODME)

    12.5 Ballasting and Deballasting Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBTs)

    12.5.1 Ballasting

    12.5.2 Deballasting

    12.6 Ballasting and Debasllating Cargo Tanks

    12.6.1 Ballasting Cargo Tanks that have not been Water Washed

    12.6.2 Heavy Weather Ballasting

    12.6.3 Ballasting Cargo Tanks on Occasions other than in Heavy Weather

    12.6.4 Pre-Ballasting Checklist

    12.6.5 Testing the Integrity of Sea Valves

    12.6.6 Controlling the Operation of Sea Valves

    12.6.7 Ballasting Previously Water Washed Cargo Oil Tanks

    12.6.8 Deballasting Clean Ballast from Cargo Tanks

    12.6.9 Discharging Dirty Ballast from Cargo Oil Tanks

    12.7 Decanting

    12.8 Ballast Exchange


    13 Preparing for Maintenance

    13.1 Tank Cleaning / Washing

    13.1.1 Tank Cleaning Systems

    13.1.2 Assessing the Degree of Tank Cleaning Required

    13.1.3 Preparing for Tank Cleaning

    13.1.4 Tank Washing Method

    13.1.5 Tank Washing Procedure

    13.2 Line Washing

    13.2.1 Points to Consider when Planning Line Washing

    13.2.2 Typical Line Washing Method

    13.2.3 Precautions to be taken during Line Washing

    13.3 Gas Freeing

    13.4 Gas Detection and Measurement

    13.4.1 Sensors Commonly used in portable Gas Detection Instruments

    13.4.2 Maintenance and Calibration of Gas Detection Instruments

    13.4.3 Measurement

    13.5 Operations Requiring Tank Cleaning and Line Washing

    13.5.1 Sludge Removal

    13.5.2 Rafting

    13.5.3 Hot Work

    13.5.4 Cold Work


    14 Contingencies and Emergencies

    14.1 Cargo Equipment or Systems Failure

    14.2 Problems during Pumping

    14.3 Inert Gas System Failure

    14.3.1 Immediate Action to be taken in the event of IGS Failure

    14.3.2 Use of Topping up Inert Gas Generator as Emergency Inert Gas Supply During Discharge

    14.3.3 Use of a Shore Supplied Portable IG Generator

    14.4 Cargo or Ballast Leakage

    14.4.1 Consequences of Tank Leakage

    14.4.2 Sources of Leakage

    14.4.3 Indications of Leakage

    14.4.4 Valve Failure

    14.4.5 ODME Failure

    14.4.6 Dealing with Contaminated Segregated Ballast

    14.5 Marine Pollution

    14.5.1 Oil Spills

    14.5.2 Isolating the Source of a Deck Oil Spill

    14.5.3 Containing an Oil Spill Onboard

    14.5.4 Transfer of Oil Accumulated on Deck

    14.5.5 Clean Up of Oil Spilled on Deck

    14.5.6 Reporting Oil Spills

    14.5.7 Pump room Spillage

    14.5.8 Recording Oil Spills

    14.6 Oil Outflow due to Hull Damage

    14.6.1 Grounding

    14.6.2 Hull Leakage as a Result of Contract with Fixed or Floating Objects

    14.6.3 Oil Pollution of unknown Origin



    15 Crude Oil Trade, Voyage Fixing and Economics

    15.1 Crude Oil Trading

    15.2 Chartering

    15.3 Charter Types

    15.4 Voyage Economics

    15.5 Crude Oil Trade


Title: Crude Oil Tanker Basics: The Theory and Practice of Crude Oil Cargo Operations
Number of Volumes: 1
Number of Pages: 192
Product Code: WS1078K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-905331-63-5 (9781905331635), ISBN 10: 1-905331-63-0 (1905331630)
Published Date: October 2009
Binding Format: Paperback
Book Height: 280 mm
Book Width: 165 mm
Book Spine: 10 mm
Weight: 0.80 kg
Author: Paul Armitage

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