Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation, 1st Edition 2019

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Corporate success is built on reputation and good public image and it can easily be destroyed by a single accident or incident.  More than ever before, companies in the chemical distribution industry must meet mandatory regulations and extensive training requirements. However, training is often restricted to a specific sector, resulting in managers, employees and contractors having limited understanding of the total marine supply chain. This surface knowledge creates risks that have to be mitigated to ensure a sustainable industry.

This publication provides insight into the entire marine logistic distribution supply chain and the responsibilities of chemical manufacturers and their service providers. It draws on the wide knowledge and experience of all stakeholders and participants in the CDI global “International Marine Packed Cargo Audit Scheme” (IMPCAS) and introduces the industry partners and their relationships within the supply chain.

The book explains the basic chemistry of products, the management systems and the regulations that control the transport of dangerous goods by sea. It simplifies the complexity of assessing and managing risk and outlines the procedures for health and safety, environmental performance, security and emergency response. The practices described support Corporate Social Responsibility within a company and the long-term sustainability of the supply chain, as well as helping to ensure the long-term environmental protection of the seas and the environment.

Focused on shipments by sea, the scope addresses the activities of all distribution supply chain sectors and service providers. The chain of custody is examined in detail, from the manufacturer’s warehouse to the export terminal and onward from the receiving terminal to the customer.

The book includes supplements of each CDI IMPCAS Audit Questionnaire.

Written by the Chemical Distribution Institute, the book is endorsed by Associated British Ports (ABP), the International Cargo Handling Coordination Association (ICHCA), the Responsible Packaging Management Association of Southern Africa (RPMASA) and the TT Club.






Figures and Tables




1 Introduction

1.1 Upstream

1.2 Downstream

1.3 Responsible Care®

1.4 Product Stewardship

1.5 Corporate Social Responsibility

1.6 The Costs of Mitigation

2 The Distribution Supply Chain: Partners and Relationships

2.1 Container Shipping Companies

2.1.1 Ship Owner

2.1.2 Ship Manager

2.1.3 Commercial Operator

2.2 Freight Forwarders

2.3 Freight Stations

2.3.1 Packers and Strippers

2.4 Shipping Agents

2.4.1 Port Agent

2.4.2 Liner Agent

2.5 Tank Container Operators

2.5.1 Tank Container Lessors

2.6 Container Terminals

2.6.1 Port Terminals

2.6.2 Hinterland Terminals

2.7 Subcontracting

2.8 Multiple Party Logistics (1PL, 2PL, 3PL…)

2.9 Supply Chain Integrity

3 Understanding Risk and Consequence

3.1 Risk and Consequence in the Supply Chain

3.1.1 Duty of Care

3.1.2 Demonstrating Due Diligence

3.2 Risk Assessment

3.3 The Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment

3.4 Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

3.5 Risk Management

3.6 Obstacles

3.6.1 Regional Responsibilities

3.6.2 Choice Limitations

3.6.3 Bottom Dollar Rates/the “Low Cost Bidder”

Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation

4 Management Responsibility

4.1 Level 1 – Policies and Procedures

4.1.1 Framework Systems

4.1.2 Integrated Systems

4.1.3 Responsible Care®

4.1.4 Sustainability

4.2 Level 2 – Objectives and Management Plans

4.2.1 General Management

4.2.2 Management of Change (MoC)

4.2.3 Administration and Documentation

4.2.4 Customers and Contracts

4.2.5 Operations and Procedures

4.2.6 Personnel and Human Resources (HR)

4.2.7 Training and Competence

4.2.8 HSE&S

4.2.9 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

4.2.10 Suppliers of Goods and Services

4.2.11 Security

4.2.12 Fall-back Plans and Emergency Preparedness

4.2.13 Audit

4.3 Level 3 – Operational Disciplines

4.3.1 Documentation

4.3.2 Customer Management

4.3.3 Operational Planning and Scheduling

4.3.4 Permit-To-Work (PTW) Systems

4.3.5 Maintenance

4.3.6 Training and Development

4.3.7 Incidents, Near Misses and Reporting

5 Chemical Products and Basic Chemistry

5.1 Chemical Groups

5.1.1 Chemical Gases

5.2 Molecular Structure of Chemical Compounds

5.3 Organic Chemistry

5.3.1 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

5.3.2 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

5.3.3 Summary of Organic Chemistry

5.4 Petrochemical Products and Manufacturing

5.4.1 Common Petrochemical Production

5.4.2 The Polymer Industry

5.4.3 Oleochemicals

5.5 Examples of Inorganic Chemicals and Production

5.6 Dry Chemical Products

6 The Regulations

6.1 The United Nations (UN)

6.2 The International Maritime Organization (IMO)

6.3 The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code

6.3.1 The Layout of the IMDG Code

6.3.2 IMDG Code Chapter 3.2, The Dangerous Goods List

6.3.3 Training

6.4 National and Regional Transport Legislation

6.4.1 United States HAZMAT

6.4.2 European Agreement for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)

6.4.3 European Agreement for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN)

6.4.4 Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID)

6.4.5 ASEAN Protocol on Dangerous Goods

7 Packaging and Cargo Transport Units

7.1 Packaging

7.1.1 Bottles, Jars, Cans and Outer Packaging

7.1.2 Drums

7.1.3 Jerrycans

7.1.4 Bags

7.1.5 Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC)

7.1.6 Pallets

7.1.7 Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC)

7.2 Cargo Transport Unit (CTU)

7.2.1 ISO Shipping Containers

7.2.2 Container Inspection

7.2.3 Safety Approval Plate (CSC Plate)

7.2.4 Planning

7.2.5 Segregation

7.2.6 Securement

7.2.7 Verified Gross Mass (VGM)

7.2.8 Placarding

7.2.9 Documentation

7.2.10 Competent Authority – Certificate of Approval

7.2.11 Information for the Haulier

7.2.12 Information for the Shipping Line/Master

7.3 Bulk Containers

7.3.1 Design and Construction

7.3.2 Operations

7.3.3 Placarding and Shipping Documents

7.4 Tank Containers

7.4.1 ISO Tank Containers

7.4.2 Construction

7.4.3 Selecting the ISO Tank Container

7.4.4 Acceptance and Pre-loading Inspection

7.4.5 Placarding

7.4.6 Cleaning and Cleaning Stations

7.5 Flexitanks

7.5.1 Preparation and Loading

8 Hazards and Hazard Classification

8.1 Safety Data Sheets

8.2 Fire and Explosion

8.2.1 Requirements for a Fire or Explosion

8.2.2 Possible Sources of Ignition

8.2.3 Static Electricity

8.2.4 Flammable Range

8.2.5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC)

8.2.6 Inert Gas and Flammability

8.2.7 Flash Point

8.2.8 Fire Point

8.2.9 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE)

8.2.10 Auto-ignition Temperature

8.3 Toxicity, Corrosive and Reactivity

8.3.1 Toxicity

8.3.2 Corrosive

8.3.3 Reactivity

8.4 Health hazards

8.4.1 Toxic Products

8.4.2 Corrosive Products

8.4.3 Reactive Products

8.4.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

8.5 Environmental Hazards

8.6 Hazard Classification

8.6.1 IMDG Hazard Classification

8.6.2 Hazard Warning Labels and Placarding

9 Health and Safety of Supply Chain Personnel

9.1 Safe Practices and Continual Improvement

9.1.1 On-the-Spot Risk Assessment

9.2 Factors affecting Health and Safety

9.2.1 Heat

9.2.2 Cold

9.2.3 Noise

9.2.4 Vibration

9.2.5 Chemical Hazards

9.2.6 Biological Hazards

9.2.7 Manual Handling

9.2.8 Slips, Trips and Falls

9.2.9 Working at Height

9.2.10 Repetitive Strain Injury

9.3 Occupational Health

9.3.1 Pre-employment Health Checks

9.3.2 Employee Health Screening

9.3.3 Exposure and Risk-Based Routine Screening

9.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

9.4.1 Clothing

9.4.2 Head Protection

9.4.3 Footwear

9.4.4 Gloves

9.4.5 Goggles, Spectacles and Face Visors

9.4.6 Hearing Protection

9.4.7 Respiratory Protection

9.4.8 Safety Harnesses and Fall Protection

9.4.9 Product Specific PPE Matrix

9.4.10 Decontamination of PPE

9.5 Safety Signage

9.6 Vapour (gas) Detection

9.7 First Aid Equipment/Treatment

10 Environmental Performance

10.1 Environmental Aspects and Impacts

10.1.1 Environmental Evaluation and Assessment

10.2 Carbon Footprint

10.2.1 Calculating the Carbon Footprint

10.2.2 Factors Influencing the Carbon Footprint

10.2.3 Limits of Data-collection

10.3 Waste and Recycling

10.3.1 Sources of Waste

10.3.2 Types of Waste, Commercial Value and Recycling

10.4 Plastics

10.4.1 Types of Plastic

10.4.2 Recycling and Re-using Plastics

10.4.3 Using Plastics in the Distribution Supply Chain

10.5 Emergency Response – Clean-up

10.6 Measurement of Environmental Performance

11 Emergency Preparedness and Response

11.1 Risk Assessment

11.2 Emergency Preparedness, Policy and Performance Standard

11.3 Emergency Services and Mutual Aid

11.4 Emergency Response Plan

11.4.1 Contents of the Emergency Response Plan

11.4.2 ERP Monitoring and Review

11.5 Emergency Response Personnel

11.5.1 Training and Response Performance

11.5.2 Forward Incident Control Team

11.5.3 Emergency Main Control Team

11.5.4 Specialist Response Team(s)

11.6 Emergency Response Equipment

11.6.1 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

11.6.2 Critical Equipment

11.7 Emergency Control Centre

11.7.1 Communication

11.7.2 Crisis Communication

11.8 Response

11.8.1 Fire

11.8.2 Spill

11.8.3 Vapour/Toxic Release

11.8.4 Medical

11.8.5 Local Community

11.9 Post Incident Clean-up and Recovery

11.9.1 Clean-up

11.9.2 Waste Removal and Remediation

11.9.3 Recovery

12 Supply Chain Security

12.1 Security Policy, Assessment and Plan

12.1.1 Security Policy

12.1.2 Security Risk Assessment

12.1.3 Security Plan

12.1.4 The Security Manager’s Role and Responsibilities

12.1.5 Monitoring and Measuring Security Performance

12.2 The Site

12.2.1 Security Training

12.2.2 Site Search Plans

12.2.3 General Site Security

12.2.4 Access and Exit Control

12.2.5 Preventative Measures

12.3 The Consignment

12.3.1 High Consequence Dangerous Goods

12.3.2 Service Agreements

12.3.3 Declaration

12.3.4 Tracking

12.4 Transport

12.4.1 Subcontracting

12.4.2 Intermodal Supply Chain Transport

12.4.3 Transit Routing

12.5 Security of Information and Cybersecurity

12.5.1 Threats

12.5.2 Computer Rooms

12.5.3 Computer Systems

12.5.4 Internet Access

12.5.5 Logging, Maintenance and Data Disposal

Supplement 1 IMPCAS Questionnaire Freight Forwarder

Supplement 2 IMPCAS Questionnaire Container Freight Station

Supplement 3 IMPCAS Questionnaire Ship Agent

Supplement 4 IMPCAS Questionnaire Tank Container Operator

Supplement 5 IMPCAS Questionnaire Container Port Terminal


This book is not an Industry Standard or Code of Practice. The contents do not challenge the established in-depth guidance of other industry organisations, but provide a crossreference to those publications to ensure an overall understanding of the safe distribution of packaged chemical products by sea transportation.


The book is written as a practical sequential prompt, an aide-mémoire for employees and managers, and as a consolidated informative guide for those persons new to the logistics industry.


The commercial success of all companies is built on reputation. With the lightning speed and ferocity of modern media, a good public image in the international market place remains intact until the moment of an incident. Association, even suggested involvement with an accident or incident can destroy reputation, collapse share price and ultimately result in the demise of the company.


Title: Packaged Chemicals by Sea: Risk Mitigation.
Edition: First
Number of Pages: 290
Product Code: WS1668K
ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-821-2 (9781856098212), ISBN 10: 1-85609-821-4 (1856098214)
Published Date: July 2019
Book Height: 305 mm
Book Width: 216 mm
Book Spine: 22 mm
Weight: 1.40 kg
Author: Chemical Distribution Institute

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