ECDIS Passage Planning and Watchkeeping, 2023 Edition

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SKU 9781914993329
Publisher Witherby Seamanship International
ISBN 9781914993329
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This publication equips navigators with a thorough knowledge of ECDIS, contributing towards safer ship operation/navigation and a more effective bridge team. It encourages operators to practice the use of every function and technique available on ECDIS, such as setting correct safety depths and safety contours, as well as understanding topics such as scale minimum (SCAMIN) and alarm management.

Updated ECDIS screenshots and illustrations such as the APEM (appraisal, planning, execution and monitoring) flowchart aid readers’ understanding of best practice techniques.

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Chapter 1  Basic Properties and Hazards of Petroleum

Vapour pressure

True Vapour Pressure

Reid Vapour Pressure


General Flammable limits

The effect of Inert Gas on flammability

Tests for flammability


Flammability classification of petroleum

Density of hydrocarbon gases Toxicity


Liquid petroleum

Petroleum gases

Safety Data Sheets

Benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons

Hydrogen sulphide


Cargo and bunker residues

Gasolines containing tetraethyl lead or tetramethyl lead Biofuels

Inert Gas

Oxygen deficiency

Pyrophoric iron sulphide

Pyrophoric oxidation Formation of pyrophors

Preventing pyrophoric ignition in inerted cargo tanks

The hazards associated with handling, storing and carrying residual fuel oils

The nature of the hazard

Flashpoint and headspace flammability measurement

Precautionary measures

Hydrogen sulphide hazard in residual fuel oils

Chapter 2  Gas Evolution and Measurement

Hydrocarbon gas evolution and dispersion


Gas evolution and venting

Gas dispersion

Minimising hazards from vented gas

Loading very high vapour pressure cargoes

Gas evolution

Special precautions with very high vapour pressure cargoes

Volatile Organic Compounds Gas measurement

Provision of gas measurement instruments

Gas measurement instruments

Instruments for measuring hydrocarbon concentration Instruments for measuring oxygen concentrations Instruments for measuring toxic gases

Technologies used to measure flammable atmospheres, toxic vapours and oxygen

Testing and calibrating gas measurement instruments

Gas measurement instrument alarms


Gas sample lines

Filters in sample lines

Gas sample procedures

Fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems

Fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems on tankers

Fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems in terminals


Chapter 3  Static Electricity

Principles of electrostatics


Charge separation Charge accumulation

Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic properties of gases and mists

General precautions against electrostatic hazards

Overview Bonding

Avoiding loose conductive objects Filters

Fixed equipment in tanks

Free fall in tanks

Water mists

Inert Gas

Other possible sources of electrostatic hazards

Discharge of carbon dioxide

Clothing and footwear

Synthetic materials

Chapter 4  Managing Hazards and Risks for Ship and Terminal

Management system

Risk management


Risk assessment

Hierarchy of controls

Marine interface risks

Management of Change

Stop Work Authority Lock-out/Tag-out

Control of hazardous energy

Hazardous energy

Hazardous energy controls

Simultaneous Operations


Managing Simultaneous Operations

Decision matrix

Matrix of permitted operations

Permit to work systems


Permit to work systems – structure

Permit to work systems – principles of operation

Permit to work forms

Work planning meetings

Toolbox talks

Personal safety

Personal Protective Equipment Slip, trip and fall hazards Asbestos

Personal hygiene

Preventing fire and explosion Control of potential ignition sources

Naked lights Smoking Smoking at sea

Smoking in port and controlled smoking Location of designated smoking places

Matches and cigarette lighters

Electronic or e-cigarettes


Galley stoves and cooking appliances

Funnel emissions

Spontaneous combustion Auto-ignition

Equipment made of aluminium

Cathodic protection anodes in cargo tanks

Electrical equipment and installations in hazardous areas

General Hazardous areas

Hazardous areas on a tanker

Hazardous areas at a terminal

Sources of ignition from electrical equipment

Standards of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas

Inspection, maintenance and testing of electrical equipment

Changes to electrical equipment and systems

Electrical repairs, maintenance and testing at terminals

Portable electrical and electronic equipment


Electrical equipment on flexible cables

Air-driven lamps

Torches, lamps and portable battery powered equipment

Mobile telephones and pagers


Other portable electrical equipment

Lithium batteries

Communications equipment


Ship’s radio equipment

Tanker radar equipment

Automatic Identification Systems Landline



General Hand tools

Electrical tools

Mechanically powered tools and grit blasting

Hydroblasting (high pressure water washing)

Theory of firefighting

Types of fire and appropriate extinguishing agents

Extinguishing agents

Cooling agents

Smothering agents

Flame inhibiting agents

Clean agent fire suppression systems

Inert Gas system

Portable fire extinguishers International shore fire connection

Water borne firefighting equipment

Protective clothing

Automatic fire detection systems


Types of fire detectors Selection of fire detectors

Fire detection and alarm systems in terminals


Chapter 6 Security


Threat and risk assessment

Security risk assessments

Cyber safety and security

Security plans

Responsibilities under the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code


Chapter 7  Human Factors


Identification and analysis of Safety Critical Tasks Design

Risk assessment Procedures Leadership

Confidence to stop work or speak up Fatigue

Manning levels

Individual training, experience and competence Practising team skills

Human factors in investigation and learning



Chapter 8   Alternative and Emerging Technologies



Due diligence process




Formal safety risk assessments

Stakeholder engagement


Chapter 9   Management of Safety and Emergencies

The International Safety Management (ISM)

Code Safety Management Systems

Work planning and permit to work systems

Hot work

Definition of hot work

Control of hot work

Hot work inside a designated space

Hot work outside a designated space

Hot work in dangerous or hazardous areas

Electric welding equipment

Other hazardous tasks

Management of contractors

Managing Simultaneous Operations

Hazards on ships with exposed transverse frames

Manifold platform

Sampling and measurement points

Repairs at a facility other than a shipyard



Supervision and control

Pre-arrival planning

Mooring arrangements

Shore facilities

Work planning meetings

Permits to work

Tank condition

Cargo lines

Firefighting precautions



Hot work

Shipboard emergency management


Tanker emergency plan

Action in an emergency


Chapter 10   Enclosed Spaces

Introduction to enclosed space entry safety

Safety management for entering enclosed spaces


Managing controlled entry into enclosed spaces Managing enclosed spaces not planned for entry

Identifying enclosed spaces

The hazards of enclosed space atmospheres

Oxygen deficiency

Presence of toxic and/or flammable gases

Risk from Inert Gas including nitrogen

Oxygen enrichment

General precautions

Authorization of entry

Requirements for enclosed space entry

Control of entry into enclosed spaces

Atmosphere tests before entry

Enclosed space entry permit

Precautions during entry into enclosed spaces

Work in enclosed spaces

General requirements

Opening equipment and fittings Use of tools

Use of electric lights and electrical equipment

Removal of sludge, scale and sediment

Use of work boats

Entering enclosed spaces with atmospheres known or suspected to be unsafe

Rescue and evacuation from enclosed spaces

Evacuation from enclosed spaces

Organising rescue and recovery from enclosed spaces

Cargo pumproom entry precautions

Cargo pumproom entry procedures

Cargo pumproom ventilation

Respiratory Protective Equipment

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

Air-line breathing apparatus

Emergency Escape Breathing Device

Equipment maintenance


Breathing apparatus training


Chapter 11   Shipboard Systems

Fixed Inert Gas systems


Sources of Inert Gas

Composition and quality of Inert Gas

Methods of replacing tank atmospheres

Cargo tank atmosphere control

Use during cargo tank operations

Precautions to be taken to avoid health hazards

Cargo tank protection against over/under pressure

Product carriers fitted with an  Inert Gas system

Cold weather precautions for Inert Gas systems

Inert Gas system failure

Emergency Inert Gas supply

Inert Gas plant repairs

Venting systems


Tank over pressurisation or under pressurisation

Cargo and ballast systems

Operation manual

Cargo and ballast system integrity Loading rates

Monitoring of void and ballast spaces

Power and propulsion systems

Vapour recovery systems

Volatile Organic Compound recovery systems

Stern loading and discharging arrangements


Chapter 12  Shipboard Operations

Cargo operations


Setting of lines and valves

Valve operation

Pressure surges

Butterfly and Non-Return (check) Valves Loading procedures

Loading static accumulator oils

Loading very high vapour pressure cargoes Loading cargoes containing hydrogen sulphide

Benzene and mercury

Loading heated products/cold oil cargoes Loading over the top (or loading overall)

Discharging procedures

Pipeline and hose clearing after cargo operations

Pumproom operational precautions

Stability, stress, trim and sloshing considerations


Free surface effects

Heavy weather ballast

Loading and discharge planning

Intact and damage stability

Tank cleaning


Tank washing risk management

Supervision and preparation

Tank atmospheres

Tank washing

Precautions for tank washing

Wash water analysis

Gas freeing


Gas free for entry

Procedures and precautions

Gas testing and measurement


Fixed gas freeing equipment

Portable fans

Ventilating double hull ballast tanks

Gas freeing in preparation for hot work

Crude Oil Washing

General Advance notice

Tank washing machines

Control of tank atmosphere

Precautions against leaks from the washing system

Avoiding oil and water mixtures

Isolating the tank cleaning heater


Ballast operations


Loading cargo tank ballast

Loading segregated ballast

Discharging segregated ballast

Ballast water exchange at sea

Cargo leaks into double hull tanks

Action to be taken

Inerting double hull tanks

Cargo measurement, ullaging, dipping and sampling


Measuring and sampling non-inerted tanks

Measuring and sampling inerted tanks

Measuring and sampling cargoes containing toxic substances

Closed gauging for custody transfer

Cargo tank monitoring systems

Transfers between ships

Ship to Ship transfers

Ship to barge and barge to ship transfers

Ship to Ship transfers using vapour balancing

Ship to Ship transfers using terminal facilities

Ship to Ship electric currents

Personnel transfer

Liquefied Natural Gas fuelled ship alongside a terminal Lifting equipment

Inspection and maintenance



Chapter 13   Carrying and Storing Hazardous Materials

Liquefied gases

Ship’s stores




Cleaning liquids

Spare gear storage

Cargo and bunker samples

Sample disposal

Sample storage

Other materials

Sawdust, oil absorbent granules and pads

Linseed and other oils


Packaged cargoes

Petroleum and other flammable liquids

Dangerous goods

Entering holds and storage spaces

Portable electrical equipment

Smothering type fire-extinguishing systems

Firefighting precautions

Forecastle spaces and midship stores

Deck cargo



Chapter 14   Special  Ship  Types

Combination carriers

General guidance

Slack holds in combination carriers

Longitudinal stress

Venting of cargo holds

Inerting of holds

Hatch covers

Tank washing

Carriage of slops when trading as a dry bulk carrier

Cargo leakage into ballast tanks

Testing of cargo tanks and enclosed spaces on dry bulk voyages

Cargo changeover checklists

PART 3          Marine Terminal Information


Chapter 15   Marine Terminal Administration

Marine Terminal Information System

Marine Terminal Particulars


Marine Terminal Management and Self Assessment

Marine Terminal  Operator Competence and Training


Terminal operating manual

Terminal Information

Booklet Documentation


Chapter 16   Marine Terminal Operations

Limiting conditions for operations

Risk assessment

Electrical storms

Double banking

Tanker/terminal access


Provision of tanker/terminal access

Access equipment

Alternative means of tanker/terminal access

Routine maintenance

Over the tide cargo operations

Discharging over the tide

Loading over the tide

Operations where the tanker is not always afloat

Generation of pressure surges in pipelines


Generation of a pressure surge

Reduction of pressure surge hazard

General precautions

Operational measures to reduce the risk of a pressure surge

Hot work in hazardous areas in terminals



Chapter 17   Marine Terminal Systems and Equipment

Electrical equipment

Lifting equipment

Inspection and maintenance

Training in the use of lifting equipment

Use of tanker lifting equipment


Tanker/terminal electrical isolation


Tanker to terminal electric currents

Sea islands

Tanker/terminal bonding cables

Insulating flange

Earthing and bonding practice in the terminal


Chapter 18   Cargo Transfer Equipment

Marine Loading Arms

Operating envelope

Forces on manifolds

Tanker manifold restrictions

Parking of arms

Ice formation

Mechanical couplers

Wind forces

Precautions when connecting and disconnecting

Marine Loading Arms Precautions while Marine Loading Arms are connected

Powered Emergency Release Couplings

Inspection, testing and maintenance

Cargo hoses


Types and applications



Flow velocities

Inspection, testing and maintenance requirements for cargo hoses

Hose flange standards

Operating conditions

Extended storage

Handling, lifting and suspending

Adjustment during cargo handling operations

Submarine and floating hose strings

Hoses used in Ship to Ship transfers

Electrical isolation

Vapour Emission Control Systems

Cargo transfer drainage and containment

Marine Loading Arm/hose clearing

Jetty deck containment

Hydrocarbon sump tanks

Emergency Shutdown systems


Chapter 19  Marine Terminal Fire Protection

Marine terminal fire protection


Fire proofing

Location and spacing of fire detectors

Fire-extinguishing system compatibility

Alarm and signalling systems

Types of alarm systems

Alarm and signalling systems

Electric power sources

Detection and alarm systems at terminals


Control rooms/control buildings

Firefighting equipment

Terminal firefighting equipment

Portable and wheeled fire extinguishers and monitors

Terminal fixed firefighting equipment

Access for firefighting services


Chapter 20    Emergency Preparedness and Evacuation


Hierarchy of emergency scenarios


Hierarchy of emergencies

Local emergency

Terminal emergency

Major emergency


Assessing risks

Credible emergency scenarios

Terminal emergency planning – plan components and procedures




Alarms and communications

Site plans and maps

Access to equipment

Road traffic movement and control

Outside services

Harbour authorities, vessel traffic control centres, police and fire services


Rescue launches

Medical facilities

Spill response plan

Tiered response

Resource availability

Emergency evacuation and personnel escape routes


T-head jetties and finger piers

Sea islands

Tanker evacuation

Non-essential personnel

Primary and secondary escape routes

Availability of rescue craft

Survival craft

Lifesaving appliances

Training for emergencies and emergency exercises

Emergency removal of tanker from berth


PART 4         Ship/Shore (Tanker/Terminal) Interface


Chapter 21   Communications

Procedures and precautions

Communications equipment

Communications procedures

Compliance with terminal and local regulations

Pre-arrival exchange of information

Security information Terminal to tanker

Tanker to terminal

Pre-berthing exchange of information

Tanker to terminal and/or pilot Terminal and/or pilot to tanker

Pre-transfer conference

Tanker to terminal

Terminal to tanker

Agreed loading plan

Agreed discharge plan

Agreement to carry out repairs

Repairs on the tanker

Repairs on the terminal (communication)

Using tools while a tanker is alongside a terminal


Chapter 22   Mooring and Berthing

Mooring safety


Security of moorings

Preparations for arrival

Tanker’s mooring equipment

Terminal mooring equipment

Use of tugs

Emergency use of tugs

Berthing at jetty berths


Type and quality of mooring lines

Management of moorings when alongside berth

Berthing at buoy moorings

Mooring Masters

Mooring at Multi Buoy Moorings Mooring at Single Point Moorings

Management of moorings at buoy berths


Chapter 23   Tanker and Terminal Precautions for Cargo Operations

External openings in superstructures

Central air conditioning and ventilation systems

Openings in cargo tanks

Cargo tank lids

Sighting, ullage ports and segregated ballast tank lids

Cargo tank vent outlets

Tank washing openings

Inspecting a tanker’s cargo tanks before loading

Marine cargo inspectors

Independent cargo inspection companies

Cargo inspection training and accreditation

Safe working in terminals and on tankers

Tanker and terminal cargo connections

Flange connections

Removing blank flanges

Reducers and spool pieces

Spills and leaks


Checks on quantity during cargo handling

Sea and overboard discharge valves

Scupper plugs

Spill containment

Tanker and terminal cargo and bunker pipelines not in use Loading at terminals with Vapour Emission Control Systems

Firefighting while the ship is alongside a terminal

Firefighting while in proximity to other ships

Tankers at adjacent berths

General cargo ships at adjacent berths

Tanker operations at general cargo berths

Tugs and other craft alongside


Notices on the tanker

Notices on the terminal

Manning  requirements

Control of vehicles and other equipment Helicopter operations


Preparation by the bunker supplier, including the bunker vessel operator

Bunkering safety management

Bunker procedures

Bunkering residual fuel oil or distillates


Liquefied Natural Gas fuelled ships and Liquefied Natural Gas bunkering

Liquefied Natural Gas bunkering processes and procedures

Transfer equipment requirements for Liquefied Natural Gas bunkering

Additional information for Liquefied Natural Gas as a fuel and Liquefied Natural Gas bunkering

Ancillary substances Alternative fuels Bunker checklists


Bunkering checklist for residual fuel oil and distillates

The principles of the bunker checklist for residual fuel oil and distillates

The composition of the bunker checklist for residual fuel oil and distillates

Instructions for completing the bunker checklist

24.7 Liquefied Natural Gas bunkering safety checklists


Chapter 25   The Ship/Shore Safety Checklist


Composition of the Ship/Shore Safety Checklist

Example safety letter

Instructions for completing the Ship/Shore


This edition of ECDIS Passage Planning and Watchkeeping sets out procedures for the correct configuration of ECDIS and, utilizing the APEM methodology, highlights best practices for passage planning and watchkeeping.

To obtain the complete benefits of ECDIS and be confident in its use, an ECDIS operator should:

• Be proficient in setting up the ECDIS, particularly the safety and display settings
• be aware that, while ECDIS may continuously display a ‘position’, it is important to understand how that position has been derived and how to verify its accuracy. The key to effective ECDIS navigation is ‘position verification’ of the current GNSS position. The watchkeeper must regularly cross-check the GNSS position with LOPs from an alternative positioning method.

Practicing the use of every function and technique available on the ECDIS is one of the most effective ways a watchkeeper can maintain and develop their navigation skills at sea. Learning how to use each type of ECDIS thoroughly, and mentoring others to do the same, contributes towards safer ship operation
and a more effective bridge team.

In November 2021, the UK Supreme Court reaffirmed the decision that a defective passage plan effectively renders the ship legally unseaworthy. In the case under question, a large container ship went aground. The company was held liable for several million dollars when it was determined that the
chart had not been properly updated. It was confirmed that the passage plan (appraising and planning stages) and subsequent navigation outside a buoyed fairway did not reflect a warning given in a Notice to Mariners. The warning stated that the depths shown on the chart outside the fairway were unreliable and
that the waters were shallower than those recorded on the chart.


Number of Pages: 238
Book Height: 297 mm
Book Width: 210 mm
Weight: 1.6 kg
Publication Date: April 2022
Published Date: April 2022

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