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Quantity Calculations LPG and Chemical Gases 2nd Ed

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Quantity Calculations LPG and Chemical Gases 2nd Ed

It is essential to understand the differences in the various calculation procedures practiced if discrepancies between cargo calculated as loaded and cargo calculated as discharged are to be correctly recognised as either real or spurious.

This new edition, which is completely revised, continues to assist the Chief Officer with this complex problems.

 

It is vital to understand the differences and considerations of various calculation procedures between a cargo calculated as it is loaded and one that is calculated when it is discharged. Discrepancies may produce doubt on the reliability of the equipment as well as involve cost to reconsile and of course inconvenience.

 

 

SIGTTO recognised the need for a wider appreciation of these matters and produced this 2nd edition guide which contributesto a broader understanding of this. The information presented may be used as a general background by those in organisations who are concerned daily with liquefied gas custody transfer, while the detailed appendices may be of particular interest to those involved in the practical measurement and calculation of cargo quantities.

 

 

 

PREFACE

1. INTRODUCTION

2. VAPOUR/LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM

3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

3.1 GENERAL-DENSITY IN AIR AND DENSITY IN VACUO

3.2 TRUE DENSITY – APPARENT DENSITY

3.3 RELATIVE DENSITY (SPECIFIC GRAVITY)

3.4 APPARENT RELATIVE DENSITY (APPARENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY)

4. VAPOUR DENSITY

4.1 GENERAL

4.2 PERFECT GASES

4.3 REAL GASSES

5. LIQUID DENSITY

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 PRACTICAL DENSITY METHOD: THE PRESSURE HYDROMETER (ASTM D1657)

5.3 DENSITY FROM COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS

5.3.1 ASTM D2598

5.3.2 THE FRANCIS FORMULA

5.3.3 THE COSTALD EQUATION

5.3.4 SPECIFIC DENSITY CALCULATION METHODS AND TABLES

5.4 LNG

6. VOLUME AND TOTAL QUANTITY DETERMINATION

6.1 TANK INVENTORY

6.2 THE LIQUID QUANTITY

6.3 SUMMARY

6.3.1 FROM LIQUID DENSITY AT OBSERVED TEMPERATURE

6.3.2 FROM LIQUID DENSITY AT REFERENCE TEMPERATURE

7. SHORE TERMINAL CONSIDERATIONS

7.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN SHIP AND SHORE FIGURES

7.2 FLOWMETERING

8. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

9. CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 1 PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL GASES

APPENDIX 2 WEIGHT IN AIR CONVERSION

APPENDIX 3 THE FRANCIS FORMULA

APPENDIX 4 THE COSTALD EQUATION

APPENDIX 5 QUANTITY CALCULATION OF LPG – AN EXAMPLE

APPENDIX 6 MEASUREMENT REPORT FOR LIQUEFIED GASES