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Guidance Manual for Tanker Structures - 2016 Consolidated Edition

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Guidance Manual for Tanker Structures - 2016 Consolidated Edition

The ‘Guidance Manual for Tanker Structures - 2016 Consolidated Edition' incorporates the following titles: ‘Guidelines for the Inspection and Maintenance of Double Hull Tank Structures’ published 1995, 2014 Edition ‘Condition Evaluation and Maintenance of Tanker Structures’ published 1992 and the ‘Guidance Manual for the Inspection and Condition Assessment of Tanker Structures’ published 1986, 2014 Edition.

PART ONE – GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR TANKER STRUCTURES

INTRODUCTION vii

1. SURVEY PREPARATION GUIDELINES 3

1.1 Survey Requirements 3

1.1.1 Class and Statutory Requirements 3

1.1.2 Owner’s Requirements 3

1.2 Safety and Access 4

1.2.1 Safety During Surveys 4

1.2.2 Access to the Structure 6

1.3 Ultrasonic Thickness Determination 7

1.3.1 Survey Team Qualifications 7

1.3.2 Basic Equipment Types 8

1.3.3 Thickness Measurement Accuracy 9

1.3.4 Measurement Procedures 9

1.4 Technical Background for Surveys 10

1.4.1 Nomenclature 11

1.4.2 Structural Load Descriptions 11

1.4.3 Structural Defects 11

1.4.4 Fatigue 12

1.4.5 Typical Corrosion Patterns 13

1.4.6 Factors Influencing Corrosion 13

1.4.7 Corrosion Trends in Tank Spaces 15

1.4.8 In-Service Corrosion Rates 16

1.4.9 Corrosion Control Systems 16

2. SURVEY EXECUTION GUIDELINES 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 General Planning Requirements 27

2.2.1 General 27

2.2.2 Data Collection and Reporting — Databases 27

2.3 Structural Aspects 28

2.3.1 Tank Bottom Structures 28

2.3.2 Side Shell, Longitudinal and Transverse Bulkheads 28

2.3.3 Deckhead Structures 29

2.4 Risk Categories 29

2.4.1 Corrosion 29

2.4.2 Structural Elements 29

2.5 Classification Society Surveys/IACS Unified Requirements for Hull Surveys of Oil Tankers 30

2.5.1 General 30

2.5.2 Special Survey 30

2.5.3 Intermediate Survey 31

2.5.4 Annual Survey 31

2.5.5 Preparation for Survey 31

2.6 Owner’s Surveys 34

2.6.1 General 34

2.6.2 General Condition Survey 34

2.6.3 Detailed Condition Survey 35

2.6.4 Corrosion Rate Survey 35

2.6.5 Repair Specification Survey 36

3. SURVEY DATA ANALYSIS GUIDELINES 39

3.1 Method of Assessment 39

3.1.1 Steel Condition 39

3.1.2 Coating Condition Assessment 39

3.1.3 Cathodic Protection System Assessment 39

iv

3.2 Structural Integrity 39

3.3 Acceptance Criteria 40

4. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR GUIDELINES 45

4.1 General 45

4.2 Type of Repair 45

4.3 Maintenance and Repair Methods 45

4.3.1 Repairs of Existing Coated Areas in Segregated Ballast Tanks 45

4.3.2 Repairs of Uncoated Areas in Cargo Tanks 45

4.3.3 Pitting and Grooving Repair 46

4.3.4 Steel Renewal 46

4.3.5 Steel Reinforcement 46

4.3.6 Steel Design Modification 46

4.3.7 Repairs of Structural Defects 46

4.4 Optimum Maintenance and Repair Strategy 46

4.4.1 General 46

4.4.2 Short-Term Maintenance and Repair Program 46

4.4.3 Long-Term Maintenance and Repair Program 46

BIBLIOGRAPHY 47

APPENDIX I Background to Forum Activities 49

APPENDIX II IACS Unified Requirements UR Z10.1 53

APPENDIX III ISGOTT Chapter 10 - Enclosed Spaces 111

APPENDIX IV Catalogue of Structural Detail Failures 121

APPENDIX V In-Service Corrosion Rate Studies 203

APPENDIX VI Structural Inspection Guidelines 209

APPENDIX VII Assessment of Existing Surface Coating Systems 223

APPENDIX VIII Forms and Procedures/On board Documentation 239v

 

PART TWO – GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF DOUBLE HULL TANKER STRUCTURES

1. Introduction 307

2. Design Aspects of Double Hull Tankers 309

2.1 Definition 309

2.2 Nomenclature 309

2.3 Cargo Tank Arrangement 309

2.4 Materials 309

2.5 Arrangement of Primary Structure Below 20,000 Dwt 310

2.6 Arrangement of Primary Structure up to 150,000 Dwt 310

2.7 Arrangement of Primary Structure Above 150,000 Dwt 310

2.8 Areas Requiring Special Attention 311

3. Critical Areas in Double Hull Tankers 323

3.1 General 323

3.2 Stress Concentration Locations in Primary Structure 323

3.2.1 Smaller Tankers (Double Bottom and Double Hull) 323

3.2.2 Larger Double Hull Tankers (no longitudinal bulkheads) 324

3.2.3 Larger Double Hull Tankers (centreline longitudinal bulkhead) 324

3.2.4 Double Hull Tankers above 150,000 dwt (with longitudinal bulkheads) 324

3.3 Misalignment During Construction 325

3.4 Corrosion Trends 325

3.4.1 General 325

3.4.2 Cargo Tank 325

3.4.3 Double Hull Ballast Spaces 325

3.5 Fatigue Considerations 326

3.6 Areas in Double Hull Tankers Requiring Special Attention 326

3.6.1 General 326

3.6.2 Cargo Tanks 326

3.6.3 Double Hull Ballast Spaces 326

4. Experience on Structural Defects in Double Hulls 335

4.1 General 335

4.2 Defects in Double Hulls 335

5. Corrosion Protection Considerations 337

5.1 General 337

5.2 Legislative Requirements for Corrosion Protection 337

5.3 Choice of Corrosion Protection 337

5.3.1 Hard Coatings (paint, bitumastic, cement, etc.) 337

5.3.2 Soft Coatings (wool-grease, lanolin, oil-based, chemical reaction, etc.) 337

5.3.3 Sacrificial Anodes 338

5.3.4 Effectiveness of Corrosion Protection System 338

5.4 Typical Coating Systems 338

5.4.1 Type of Paint 338

5.4.2 Water Ballast Tank Coatings 339

5.4.3 Cargo Tank Coatings 340

5.4.4 Main Deck Structure 340

5.5 Quality Standards for Coating of Double Hull Spaces 340

5.5.1 General Standards 340

5.5.2 Steelwork Preparation 340

5.5.3 Surface Preparation and Painting 341

5.5.4 Main Paint System Application 341

5.6 Typical Defects of Coating Systems 341

5.6.1 Surface Cleanliness 341

5.6.2 Coating Integrity 342

5.6.3 Overcoating Intervals 342

5.6.4 Weather Effects on Coating 343

5.6.5 Other Failures 343

5.7 Planning, Supervision and Guarantees 343

5.7.1 Planning 343

5.7.2 Supervision 344

5.7.3 Guarantees 344

5.8 Recommendations for New Construction 344vi

6. Design Considerations in Accessibility for Inspection and Maintenance 347

6.1 General 347

6.2 Visibility Requirements 347

6.3 Accessibility Requirements for Double Hull Spaces 347

6.3.1 Access from Weather Deck 347

6.3.2 Accessibility for Personnel Safety 347

6.4 Access Methods for Inspection 348

6.4.1 General 348

6.4.2 Access Methods for Inspection in Cargo Tanks 348

6.4.3 Access Methods for Inspection in Vertical Wing Spaces 348

6.4.4 Access Methods for Inspection in Double Bottom Spaces 348

6.5 Ventilation and Inerting Requirements for Double Hull Spaces 349

6.5.1 General 349

6.5.2 Conventional Tank Ventilation Method 349

6.5.3 Ventilation by Ballast Pipe 349

6.5.4 Ventilation by Purge Pipe 349

6.5.5 Inerting by Ballast Pipe 349

6.5.6 Inerting by Deck Inert Gas Lines 349

7. Survey of Structure 363

7.1 General 363

7.2 Types of Inspection and Objectives 363

7.2.1 Types of Inspection 363

7.2.2 Inspection Objectives 363

7.2.3 Inspection Phases 363

7.3 Planning and Preparation for Inspection 363

7.3.1 Technical Information 363

7.3.2 Documentation Onboard 364

7.3.3 Risk Categories 364

7.3.4 Inspection Schedule and Venue 364

7.3.5 Inspection Personnel 364

7.4 Execution of Survey 364

7.4.1 General 364

7.4.2 Scope of Inspection 364

7.4.3 Communication 364

7.4.4 Safety Aspects 364

7.4.5 Data Collection 365

7.5 Reporting 365

7.5.1 General 365

7.5.2 Classification Society’s Survey Report Forms 365

7.5.3 Owner’s Survey Report Forms 365

7.6 Post Inspection Analysis of Survey Data 365

7.6.1 General 365

7.6.2 Steel Condition Assessment and Corrosion Trend Study 365

7.6.3 Coating Condition Assessment 365

7.6.4 Corrosion Protection System Assessment 366

7.6.5 Structural Integrity Analysis 366

7.6.6 Future Survey Requirement Analysis 366

8. Maintenance and Repair 367

8.1 General 367

8.2 Type of Repair 367

8.3 Maintenance and Repair Methods 367

8.3.1 Repairs of Existing Coated Areas in Segregated Ballast Tanks 367

8.3.2 Repairs of Uncoated Areas in Cargo Tanks 367

8.3.3 Pitting and Grooving Repair 368

8.3.4 Steel Renewal 368

8.3.5 Steel Reinforcement 368

8.3.6 Steel Design Modification 368

8.3.7 Repairs of Structural Defects 368

8.4 Optimum Maintenance and Repair Strategy 368

8.4.1 General 368

8.4.2 Short-Term Maintenance and Repair Programme 368

8.4.3 Long-Term Maintenance and Repair Programme 368

References 369